Intensification of teachers

Following Professor Andy Hargreaves, “two of the most widespread opposing explanations about changes in teachers’ work are that of professionalization and intensification.” (Hargreaves, A. (2005): Teachers, culture and postmodernity, change the times, change the teaching staff, pp. 142-145). Professionalization defends that we must fight for greater professionalism of the teacher and put it into practice by expanding the role of the teacher. A second line of argument, derived mainly from the Marxist theories of the work process, reveals the main trends towards the deterioration and deprofessionalization of teachers’ work. According to this conception, their work is intensified progressively, waiting for them to respond to stronger pressures and to make multiple innovations in conditions that, at best, are stable and at worst, are deteriorating. From this point of view, extended professionalism is a strategy for teachers to collaborate willingly on their own exploitation, leaving them to be required more and more.

The concept of intensification is derived from the general theories of the labor process as Larson (Larson, SM (1980), “Proletarianization and educated labor”, Theory and Society, 9 (1), pages 131-175). According to Larson, intensification represents one of the most tangible forms of erosion suffered by the labor privileges of trained workers. It is a rupture, often drastic, with the paused orientation of the privileged non-manual workers when the The workday in the absence of surplus This statement contains the following statements about intensification:

Leads to reduce the time of rest during the working day, to not leave even space to eat.
It leads to lack of time to reform their own skills and to keep up with their own field
It causes a chronic and persistent overload that reduces areas of personal judgment.
It leads to reduced quality of service when cuts are produced to save time.
It leads to the forced diversification of expertise and responsibility to cover the lack of staff.
Michael Apple argues that intensification is evident in the work of teachers (developed out of school and imposed from abroad) increasingly dependent on the apparatus of behavioral goals, classroom assessment tools and accountability and Of classroom management technologies. This has led to a proliferation of administrative and evaluation tasks, an extension of teachers ‘working hours and the elimination of opportunities for more creative and imaginative work (a situation that has provoked teachers’ complaints). (Apple, M. (1989): Teachers and Texts, New York, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Note 4). Apple points to a concrete effect of intensification on the meaning and quality of teachers’ work: reducing the time and opportunities for elementary teachers to show their attention and their relationship with students because of their institutionalized concern about Administrative and evaluation tasks.

Bibliography used:

Apple, M. (1989): Teachers and Texts, New York, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Apple M., and Jungck, S .: “You do not have to be a teacher to teach this unit: Teaching, technology and control in the classroom”. Journal of Education, No. 291, 1990, pp. 149-172).

Hargreaves, A. (2005): Teachers, culture and postmodernity. Times change, change teachers. P. 142-145

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Publicado en teaching

La intensificación del profesorado

Siguiendo al Profesor Andy Hargreaves “dos de las explicaciones opuestas más extendidas en torno a los cambios en el trabajo de los profesores son la de la profesionalización y la de intensificación”. (Hargreaves, A. (2005): Profesorado, cultura y postmodernidad. Cambian los tiempos, cambia el profesorado.  Págs. 142-145). La profesionalización defiende que hay que luchar por una mayor profesionalidad del docente y llevarla a la práctica mediante la ampliación del rol del maestro. Una segunda línea argumental, derivada principalmente de las teorías marxistas del proceso de trabajo, pone de manifiesto las tendencias principales hacia el deterioro y la desprofesionalización del trabajo de los docentes. Según esta concepción, su trabajo se intensifica progresivamente esperándose de ellos que den respuesta a presiones más fuertes y realicen múltiples innovaciones en condiciones que, en el mejor de los casos, son estables y en el peor, están deteriorándose. Desde este punto de vista, la profesionalidad ampliada es una estrategia para que los docentes colaboren de buen grado en su propia explotación, dejando que se les exijan cada vez mayores esfuerzos.

El concepto de la intensificación se deriva de las teorías generales del proceso de trabajo tal y como la expone Larson (Larson, S.M. (1980): “Proletarianization and educated labor”, Theory and Society, 9 (1), páginas 131-175. Según Larson, la intensificación representa una de las formas más tangibles de erosión que padecen los privilegios laborales de los trabajadores formados. Supone una ruptura, a menudo drástica, con la orientación pausada que prevén los privilegiados trabajadores no manuales cuando hay que reducir el tiempo de la jornada laboral al no producirse excedentes. Esta exposición contiene las siguientes afirmaciones acerca de la intensificación:

  • lleva a reducir el tiempo de descanso durante la jornada laboral, hasta no dejar incluso espacio para comer.
  • Conduce a carecer de tiempo para reformar las propias destrezas y para mantenerse al día en el campo propio
  • Provoca una sobrecarga crónica y persistente que reduce las áreas de criterio personal.
  • Conduce a la reducción de la calidad del servicio cuando se producen recortes para ahorrar tiempo.
  • Lleva a la diversificación forzada de la pericia y la responsabilidad para cubrir la falta de personal.

Michael Apple afirma que la intensificación se pone de manifiesto en el trabajo de los profesores (elaborado fuera de la escuela e impuesto desde el exterior) cada vez más dependiente del aparato de objetivos conductuales, de instrumentos de evaluación en clase y de rendición de cuentas y de tecnologías de gestión del aula. Esto ha llevado a la proliferación de tareas administrativas y de evaluación, a la prolongación de la jornada laboral de los profesores y a la eliminación de las oportunidades para realizar un trabajo más creativo e imaginativo (situación que ha provocado quejas de los profesores). (Apple, M. (1989): Teachers and Texts, Nueva York, Routledge & Kegan Paul. Nota 4). Apple señala un efecto concreto de la intensificación sobre el sentido y la calidad del trabajo de los profesores: la reducción del tiempo y de las oportunidades para que los maestros elementales demuestren su atención y su relación con los alumnos a causa de su preocupación institucionalizada por las tareas administrativas y de evaluación.


Bibliografía utilizada:

Apple, M. (1989): Teachers and Texts, Nueva York, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Apple M., y Jungck, S.: “You don’t have to be a teacher to teach this unit: Teaching, technology and control in the classroom”. Revista de Educación, nº 291, 1990, págs. 149-172).

Hargreaves, A. (2005): Profesorado, cultura y postmodernidad. Cambian los tiempos, cambia el profesorado.  Págs. 142-145

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Publicado en docentes

Educational film: The history teacher

Today, to welcome the weekend, we bring to the blog an example of a movie that can be interesting to share with the students. We hope you like it!.


Original title: Les héritiers

Year 2014

Duration: 100 min.

Country France

Director: Marie-Castille Mention-Schaar

Screenplay: Marie-Castille Mention-Schaar

Photography: Myriam Vinocour

Starring: Ariane Ascaride, Ahmed Dramé,

Geneviève Mnich, Xavier Maly, Martin Cannavo,

Noémie Merlant, Stéphane Bak

Production Company: Loma Nasha Films

Genre: Comedy

Awards: 2014: César Awards: Ahmed Drame nominated for best actor.


The film narrates the history of an academic course of Secondary of the branch of Humanities in a French provincial institute. Anne Gueguen is a History and Geography teacher who also teaches Art History to those students who have chosen that option. She is also tutor (principal teacher in the original version) of some kind. At the beginning of his class, and after presenting himself by writing his name on the board, he says: “I have been teaching for twenty years and I like what I do. As far as I can, I will do everything I can so that I will not be bored … “A few days after starting the course, frustrated by the students’ passing and their lack of critical thinking, Anne proposes to her students to participate in a contest About what it means to be a teenager in a Nazi concentration camp.


Although the thread of history is the preparation of its students, the personality of the teacher gives us many clues about the ideal profile of the professor of Humanities:


First, we must make a reference to the context in which the film unfolds. Perhaps in Spain is not yet happening so markedly but the France that shows us the film speaks of teenagers with multiple creeds, some with principles of radicalism, who have to live in the same classroom. Secularism is one of the values of France and we witness how, despite the efforts of the school to prevent religious symbols (both crosses, jihabs, etc …) the students themselves try to impose their symbols on others (there is a Scene in which some boys want to impose to a girl a certain form of dress, another one in which a student reproaches to another that has not gone to the mosque and even some comment in funny tone that carries a certain racism). Professor Gueguen is adamant about this type of comment, making it clear that she can not be frivolous with racist comments and also exemplifies it, she explains to her students how they would feel if the object of that joke were them. He intervened sharply when some kind of behavior occurs and even in a certain his intervention means a certain physical danger (do not forget that we are talking about young men who are over 1.80 in height and are not featherweight precisely …) . One of the breeds of cultivation of radicalism is usually ignorance, and precisely because of this, the humanities teacher must contextualize the explanations (in a class, when faced with the scandal of the Muslim students when seeing a painting where Mohammed has been represented in Hell, Professor Gueguen has to explain to them that the painting was done in the middle of a war between Christians and Muslims, so that the enemy is actually being represented).


One of the aspects that most draws attention to the beginning of the film, from the point of view of the teacher, is the interpersonal ability to deal with the students and seek their motivation. When Professor Gueguen is passing list there are some students who say that they should not be there, that they preferred to study “Euro” or “cinema”. Professor Gueguen’s response, sometimes with irony, is that these subjects require more attention but do not stop to see if there is any mistake, learn the names of their students and assume that they have to live together. His knowledge of human nature (not in vain the humanities train him from different angles) helps him a lot in this task. In fact, it starts from that moment to instill discipline and respect (outside the cap, no headphones or mobiles …). Students may at first look at it with annoyance, even if some feel excluded or rejected, but the truth is that it earns their respect. On the other hand, it invites them to open horizons, to seek new goals. There is a phrase that sums up this philosophy very well: “There is a world out there you have to make a hole”. The organization of the activity where you invite a lecture in the classroom to a survivor of a concentration camp is a good example of this. He wants them to experiment, to feel, to internalize even if it is a matter that could be considered arid … There is a phrase, this time in the mouth of the other teacher who collaborates in the activity that is very defining of the attitude of learning in this matter: “History is not learned, history is understood.” The aspect of teacher leadership is one of the highlights of this film. Professor Gueguen is a leader from the example, from the demand to its students but also from its defense. At the class evaluation meeting where all the teachers and the two student representatives are present, when all the teachers insist on the irrecoverability of that group, it is the teacher who claims the progress of a student who previously took everything for Below 5 (the equivalent of 2.5) and now it is almost bordering on the approved … Leadership is a modern, close and, most importantly, shared leadership. Professor Gueguen is aware that the class has negative internal leaders but does not confront them but does not allow them to nullify the personality of the other students. In fact, using a very fashionable term today, the role of the teacher is to empower their students to have enough personality to decide on their own. This is very clearly seen when, during the course of the work, and in the face of a small conflict because two groups had worked on the same, he reproaches them for not even talking among themselves, not listening to each other, being indifferent to what The others do … The reaction of the students surprises the teacher herself. Putting into practice what has been learned in class about Athenian democracy (again we see again how the professor of Humanities claims the full validity of teaching their subjects) make a drawing to form two groups whose tasks are complementary. On the aspect of leadership I would like to make a small reflection: The teacher should be aware that he is a leader, whether he wants to or not. There are professions where leadership is implicit in professional work. Just as the priest has a hard time not working on Sunday, the teacher has impossible not to be a role model for his students. Insofar as he recognizes it, he assumes it as part of his role and strengthens it so that he can exercise it in the most appropriate way, the benefits both to him and to his students could be immediate. In fact, “the leadership capacity of teachers is another element that has been considered as of crucial importance to respond to the current challenges of schools. Leadership is not a separate role and position assumed under specific circumstances. We must think that leadership is inherent in the role of the teacher as a professional, that teachers have a responsibility to fulfill “(Marcelo and Vaillant, 2001). Professor Gueguen exercises her leadership using influence management and achievement orientation: she knows how to propose a challenge to bring together the will of the class and shows that she has more confidence in the students than they do in themselves. The “leader teacher” has attitudes that define him: He knows how to “pull the rope”, knows how to ask for something more when they just make a compilation of the photos of the numbers of the tattooed prisoners and invites them to be themselves “do not talk As students, speak as children and adolescents. ” Sometimes, it has to support the decisions of the students as when they propose to use the cover of a comic where the prisoners appear dressed and with hair because it supposes them to “recover the personality”. The leading teacher accepts criticism and misunderstanding of his role as when the director of the center reproaches him to “waste his time in that class instead of dedicating himself to helping more able and more able students” but, above all, he knows how to cope To the class when they accuse him of wanting to almost ridicule them by pointing to that contest. The leader teacher has credibility. As a cross-cutting idea throughout the film, one of the most important aspects for teachers in general and for humanities in particular, such as Education in values, is underlain. Nothing of the above so far makes sense if there is no transformation in the students, if they are unable to incorporate into their lives the values of respect, work and solidarity learned in class. The culmination of this learning occurs when one of the young protagonists, of Muslim religion, stops in the mailboxes of his house to erase with his own colony a graffiti against a Jewish family. Finally, the teacher knows how to thank, she knows how to show satisfaction for the job well done. He likes to share that moment and enjoy it because he also has to teach to share successes and achievements. The students will continue to grow and the teacher returns to her classroom where, this time, her sentence adds another year: “I’ve been teaching for twenty-one years and I like what I do. As much as possible, I will do anything to keep it from being boring … “

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Publicado en cine

Cine educativo: La profesora de Historia

Hoy, para dar la bienvenida al fin de semana, traemos al blog un ejemplo de película que puede ser interesante compartir con los alumnos. ¡Esperamos que os guste!.


Título original: Les héritiers

Año: 2014

Duración: 100 min.

País: Francia

Director: Marie-Castille Mention-Schaar

Guión: Marie-Castille Mention-Schaar

Fotografía: Myriam Vinocour

Reparto: Ariane Ascaride, Ahmed Dramé,

Geneviève Mnich, Xavier Maly, Martin Cannavo,

Noémie Merlant, Stéphane Bak

Productora: Loma Nasha Films

Género:  Drama

Premios: 2014: Premios César: Ahmed Drame nominado a mejor actor revelación.


La película narra la historia de un curso académico de Secundaria de la rama de Humanidades en un instituto de provincias francés. Anne Gueguen es una profesora de Historia y Geografía que también imparte Historia del Arte a aquellos alumnos que han escogido esa opción. También es tutora (profesor principal en la versión original) de alguna clase. Al comenzar su clase y, tras presentarse escribiendo su nombre en la pizarra, les dice: “Llevo veinte años enseñando y me gusta lo que hago. En la medida de lo posible haré lo que sea para que no resulte aburrido…” A los pocos días de comenzar el curso, frustrada por el pasotismo de sus alumnos y su falta de mentalidad crítica, Anne propone a sus alumnos a participar en un concurso nacional sobre lo que significa ser adolescente en un campo de concentración nazi.


Aunque el hilo conductor de la historia es la preparación de sus alumnos, la personalidad de la profesora nos da muchísimas pistas sobre el perfil ideal del profesor de Humanidades:


En primer lugar, debemos hacer una referencia al contexto en el que se desarrolla la película. Quizá en España todavía no esté sucediendo de manera tan acusada pero la Francia que nos muestra la película nos habla de adolescentes con múltiples credos, algunos con principios de radicalismo, que tienen que convivir en el mismo aula. La laicidad es uno de los valores de Francia y asistimos como, pese a los esfuerzos del centro escolar por impedir los símbolos religiosos (tanto las cruces, como los jihabs, etc…) los propios alumnos intentan imponer sus símbolos a los demás (hay una escena en la que unos chicos quieren imponer a una chica una determinada forma de vestir, otra en la que un alumno reprocha a otro que no haya ido a la mezquita e incluso algún comentario en tono gracioso que conlleva un cierto racismo). La profesora Gueguen se muestra inflexible ante este tipo de comentarios dejando claro que no se puede frivolizar con comentarios racistas y además lo ejemplifica, les explica a sus alumnos cómo se sentirían si el objeto de esa broma fueran ellos. Interviene de manera tajante cuando se produce algún tipo de este comportamiento e incluso en un determinado su intervención le supone un cierto peligro físico (no olvidemos que estamos hablando de mozalbetes que superan el 1,80 de estatura y no son peso pluma precisamente….). Uno de los caldos de cultivo del radicalismo suele ser la ignorancia y, precisamente, por eso, el profesor de humanidades debe contextualizar las explicaciones (en una clase, cuando ante el escándalo de los alumnos musulmanes al ver una pintura donde Mahoma ha sido representado en el infierno, la profesora Gueguen les tiene que explicar que la pintura fue hecha en plena guerra entre cristianos y musulmanes por lo que, en realidad se está representando al enemigo).


Uno de los aspectos que más llama la atención al inicio de la película, desde el punto de vista del profesor, es la habilidad interpersonal a la hora de acometer el trato con sus alumnos y de buscar su motivación. Cuando la profesora Gueguen está pasando lista hay algunos alumnos que dicen que ellos no deberían estar ahí, que preferían estudiar “Euro” o “cine”. La respuesta de la profesora Gueguen, a veces con ironía, es que esas materias requieren mayor nota pero no se detiene a ver si hay algún error, aprende los nombres de sus alumnos y asume que tienen que convivir juntos. Su conocimiento de la naturaleza humana (no en vano las humanidades le capacitan desde diferentes ángulos) le ayuda mucho en esta tarea. De hecho, empieza desde ese momento a inculcarles disciplina y respeto (fuera la gorra, nada de auriculares ni móviles…). Puede que los alumnos al principio la miren con fastidio, incluso que algunos se sientan excluidos o rechazados pero lo cierto es que se gana su respeto. Por otro lado, les invita a abrir horizontes, a buscar nuevas metas. Hay una frase que resume muy bien esta filosofía: “Hay un mundo ahí fuera tenéis que haceros un hueco“. La organización de la actividad donde invita a dar una conferencia en la clase a un superviviente de un campo de concentración es un buen ejemplo de ello. Quiere que experimenten, que sientan, que lo interioricen incluso aunque se trate de una materia que se podría considerar árida… Hay una frase, esta vez en boca de la otra profesora que colabora en la actividad que es muy definitoria de la actitud de aprendizaje ante esta materia: “La historia no se aprende, la historia se comprende”.


El aspecto del liderazgo del profesor es uno de los roles más destacados de esta película. La profesora Gueguen es líder desde el ejemplo, desde la exigencia a sus alumnos pero también desde su defensa. En la reunión de evaluación de la clase donde están presentes todos los profesores y los dos representantes de los alumnos, cuando todos los profesores insisten en la irrecuperabilidad de ese grupo, es la profesora la que reivindica los progresos de un alumno que antes sacaba todo por debajo de 5 (el equivalente a 2,5) y ahora está casi rozando el aprobado… El liderazgo es un liderazgo moderno, cercano y, lo más importante, es compartido. La profesora Gueguen es consciente de que la clase tiene líderes internos negativos pero no se enfrenta a ellos pero no consiente que ellos anulen la personalidad de los demás alumnos. De hecho, utilizando un término muy de moda en la actualidad, el rol de la profesora es el de empoderar a sus alumnos para que tengan la personalidad suficiente para decidir por su cuenta. Esto se ve muy claramente cuando, durante el desarrollo del trabajo, y ante un pequeño conflicto porque dos grupos habían trabajado sobre lo mismo, les reprocha que ni siquiera hablen entre ellos, que no se escuchen unos a otros, que sean indiferentes ante lo que hacen los demás… La reacción de los alumnos sorprende a la propia profesora. Poniendo en práctica lo aprendido en clase sobre la democracia ateniense (nuevamente volvemos a comprobar como el profesor de Humanidades reivindica la plena vigencia de la enseñanza de sus materias) hacen un sorteo para formar dos grupos cuyas tareas sean complementarias. Sobre el aspecto del liderazgo me gustaría hacer una pequeña reflexión: El profesor debe ser consciente de que es líder, quiera o no. Hay profesiones donde el liderazgo está implícito a la labor profesional. Al igual que el sacerdote tiene difícil no trabajar en domingo, el profesor tiene imposible no ser un modelo para sus alumnos. En la medida en que lo reconozca, lo asuma como parte de su rol y lo potencie al objeto de poder ejercerlo de la manera más adecuada, los beneficios tanto para él como para sus alumnos podrían ser inmediatos. De hecho, “la capacidad de liderazgo de los profesores es otro elemento que se viene considerando como de crucial importancia para dar respuesta a los desafíos actuales de las escuelas. El liderazgo no es un papel o posición separada y asumida bajo circunstancias específicas. Hemos de pensar que el liderazgo es inherente al papel del profesor como profesional, que los profesores tienen una responsabilidad que cumplir” (Marcelo y Vaillant, 2001).


La profesora Gueguen ejerce su liderazgo utilizando la gestión por influencia y la orientación al logro: sabe proponer un reto para aglutinar la voluntad de la clase y demuestra que tiene más confianza en los alumnos que ellos en sí mismos. El “profesor líder” tiene actitudes que le definen: Sabe “tirar de la cuerda”, sabe pedir algo más cuando se limitan a hacer una recopilación de las fotos de los números de los prisioneros tatuados y les invita a ser ellos mismos “no habléis como alumnos, hablad como niños y adolescentes”. En ocasiones, tiene que respaldar las decisiones de los alumnos como cuando proponen utilizar la portada de un comic donde los prisioneros aparecen vestidos y con pelo porque les supone “recuperar la personalidad”. El profesor líder acepta las críticas y la incomprensión de su función como cuando el director del centro le reprocha que “pierda su tiempo en esa clase en lugar de dedicarse a ayudar a alumnos más capaces y con más posibilidades” pero, sobre todo, sabe enfrentarse a la clase cuando estos mismos le acusan de querer casi ponerles en ridículo al apuntarles a ese concurso. El profesor líder tiene credibilidad.


Como idea transversal a lo largo de toda la película subyace uno de los aspectos más importantes para los profesores en general, y para los de humanidades en particular, como es la Educación en valores. Nada de lo comentado hasta ahora tiene sentido si no se produce una transformación en los alumnos, si no son capaces de incorporar a su vida los valores de respeto, trabajo y solidaridad aprendidos en clase. El culmen de este aprendizaje se produce cuando uno de los jóvenes protagonistas, de religión musulmana, se detiene en los buzones de su casa para borrar con su propia colonia una pintada contra una familia judía.


Finalmente, la profesora sabe dar las gracias, sabe mostrar su satisfacción por el trabajo bien hecho. Le gusta compartir ese momento y disfrutarlo porque también hay que enseñar a compartir los éxitos y los logros. Los alumnos seguirán creciendo y la profesora, vuelve a su aula donde, esta vez, su frase añade un año más: “Llevo veintiún años enseñando y me gusta lo que hago. En la medida de lo posible haré lo que sea para que no resulte aburrido…”

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Publicado en cine

Empowering centers and developing leadership

One of the aspects that the OECD has been insisting lately is the direct relationship between school performance and the autonomy of schools. Autonomy means that schools have the capacity to make decisions that affect their daily functioning (hiring, working conditions, promotions, subjects taught, etc …). To the extent that the centers had the capacity to specialize or apply certain methodologies that would help to complement the training of their students, we could establish a “healthy competition” between the centers in order to develop the best pedagogical techniques and to combat school failure. In this sense, the role of the director reappears as a key figure and the aspect of leadership, both at the level of the governing bodies and the different agents of the school is confirmed as an aspect to take into account. In the words of Professor Antonio Bolívar, “Evidence has shown the crucial role of school management in a school that works well, particularly when, instead of being limited to management, it focuses on making the center a collective action project for service To increase student learning “(Bolivar, 2013). In the same article, Bolivar points out that an OECD program called “Improving School Leadership” considers four broad lines of action necessary:

  • Redefine the responsibilities that management teams must have
  • Distribute school leadership
  • Train managers with the necessary skills for effective leadership
  • Make leadership an attractive profession.

For this leadership to be effective, it must be able to have sufficient autonomy and competencies to carry out an active management. In particular, each center should be able to have greater possibilities of decision, always under strict compliance with the laws, total transparency and avoiding any suspicion of corruption, in terms of appointment of officials, choice of methodologies or pedagogical tasks. In line with the above, each center should be able to manage its variable remuneration “bag” autonomously and always with transparency and consistency with the previously established criteria. However, this autonomy should be endorsed by an improvement in its indicators and in its evolution in terms of education, in other words, the results of each center must have a direct relation to its ability to function autonomously. Those who demonstrate that they know how to manage resources, as in the parable of the talents, should be deserving of greater trust. The other side of the autonomy of the centers is the obligation to be accountable for all their actions, also allowing the different agents to form an opinion on the management of each center.

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Publicado en teaching

Potenciación de la autonomía de los centros y desarrollo del liderazgo

Uno de los aspectos en los que la OCDE viene insistiendo últimamente es la relación directa entre rendimiento escolar y autonomía de los centros educativos. Autonomía significa que los centros escolares tengan capacidad para poder tomar decisiones que afecten a su funcionamiento diario (contratación, condiciones laborales, promociones, asignaturas que imparten, etc…). En la medida en que los centros tuvieran capacidad para poder especializarse o aplicar determinadas metodologías que ayudaran a complementar la formación de sus alumnos podríamos llegar a establecer una “sana competencia” entre los centros para poder desarrollar las mejores técnicas pedagógicas y combatir el fracaso escolar. En este sentido, el papel del director nos vuelve a aparecer como una figura clave y el aspecto del liderazgo, tanto a nivel de los órganos directivos como de los diferentes agentes del centro escolar se nos confirma como un aspecto a tener en cuenta. En palabras del profesor Antonio Bolívar “Las evidencias han mostrado el papel crucial que desempeña la dirección escolar en una escuela que funciona bien, particularmente cuando, en lugar de limitarse a la gestión, se centra en hacer del centro un proyecto de acción colectiva al servicio de incrementar los aprendizajes del alumnado” (Bolívar, 2013). En el mismo artículo, Bolívar señala que un programa de la OCDE denominado “Mejorar el liderazgo escolar” (Improving School Leadership) considera necesarias cuatro grandes líneas de acción:

  • redefinir las responsabilidades que deben tener los equipos directivos
  • distribuir el liderazgo escolar
  • capacitar con las competencias necesarias a los directivos para un liderazgo eficaz
  • hacer del liderazgo una profesión atractiva.

Para que este liderazgo sea efectivo, tiene que poder tener autonomía y competencias suficientes para poder llevar a cabo una gestión activa. En particular, cada centro debería poder tener mayores posibilidades de decisión, siempre bajo estricto cumplimiento de las leyes, total transparencia y evitando cualquier sospecha de corrupción, en cuanto a nombramientos de responsables, elección de determinadas metodologías o tareas pedagógicas. En línea con lo comentado anteriormente, cada centro debería poder gestionar su “bolsa” de retribución variable de manera autónoma y siempre con transparencia y coherencia con los criterios previamente fijados. Ahora bien, esta autonomía debería estar refrendada por una mejora de sus indicadores y de su evolución en cuanto a nivel de enseñanza, dicho de otra manera, los resultados de cada centro deben tener una relación directa sobre su capacidad de funcionar de manera autónoma. Aquellos que demuestran que saben gestionar los recursos, como en la parábola de los talentos, deberían ser merecedores de mayor confianza. La otra cara de la autonomía de los centros es la obligación de rendir cuentas de todas sus actuaciones permitiendo también que los diferentes agentes puedan formarse una opinión sobre la gestión de cada centro.


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Publicado en enseñanza, Sin categoría

Development and growth of the teaching function

In the same way that when we travel by plane, we feel that our safety is in the pilot’s skill or when we undergo surgery we depend on the expert hands of the surgeon, we must be aware that progress Of education goes without a doubt by the work of teachers and, more importantly, our progress as a nation goes directly by the quality and proper performance of its work. In the two examples cited, we are talking about professions socially recognized where their performance is linked to responsibility and prestige. However, in our current society, we do not have the same perception regarding teaching work. It is true that we have improved if we compare with those years where the popular refranero established a measure of poverty in the popular saying “to go hungry more than a school teacher” but if we look a little towards the countries of a similar economic environment, we can check As the great qualitative leaps in education have always been accompanied by a strengthening of the teaching profession. In South Korea, being a teacher is a profession with great social prestige to which only 5% of the best students can access and to be a director requires 25 years of teaching experience. In Finland only 10% of the candidates get to enter the Magisterium career (where it is also necessary to have a 9/10 in high school and revalidated). The social consideration of the teacher is such that people ask for advice on all kinds of issues because of their high preparation. How can we get that in Spain ?. At the outset, we have to make the teaching profession attractive and for this we should not only focus on the salary (in fact, the remuneration in Spain is on average or even above the OECD countries) but we can contribute With other concrete measures:

  • Development of a career plan that includes real professional growth, measurable and evaluable, not only in responsibility and prestige but also in the possibilities of choosing where to continue developing and growing in the educational field (possibilities to be able to transmit their skills, to be a trainer Of trainers, to make exchanges in foreign universities, to develop in new skills, to feel part of the construction of the educational system). Obviously, this development of his career must have a direct link with the results, not measured in a “cold” way but taking into account the multiple factors that affect each center and, above all, the starting point from which he began his work teacher. In our current educational system we tend to equate seniority with experience and reality shows that many professionals, probably the most involved and committed to their work, do not get more reward or see their work rewarded with the allocation of tasks of greater responsibility. In this line, José Antonio Marina has prepared a White Paper on the Teaching Profession where a debate on aspects related to the teaching career (professional status, academic progress, progress in management, continuous training, etc …) is proposed. Although we should not only look at the salary, we can not ignore the importance of the same and the linkage that must have with the performance. Variable remuneration is a salary measure present in many companies and has a stimulus component while allowing some differentiation favoring the professionals involved that we referred to earlier. However, let’s not confuse ourselves by giving a better reward to professionals who have simply been lucky enough to meet good students. The evaluation of teachers in order to be able to measure their performance must take into account the starting point from which they began to develop their work, but especially the teacher’s efforts to improve the training of their students. Personally, I am an advocate of variable remuneration whenever it is done in a responsible way and that the measuring instruments contemplate all the aspects that can influence it. The fact that a significant part of our salary depends on our attitude is widespread in private enterprise and has a direct effect on employee productivity. However, we must make an important distinction: Sometimes when we think about the subject of teacher remuneration “by objectives” we tend to equate objectives with “student achievement”, when in fact we would have to talk about “achievements of our performance “. We all know how to distinguish a good teacher from another who is not so great and perhaps it is these “intangible” aspects that should be objectified in order to evaluate a teacher. For example, the following aspects could be assessed regardless of the stage in which class is given:
    -Does the teacher strive to help achieve the knowledge of his students ?.

-Adapts its explanations to the different situations of the student? .

-Plans the classes to take advantage of the time or, to the contrary, to go to class does not contribute anything to its students

-Do you recycle frequently to update your knowledge and new ways of transmitting?

-Is a teacher accessible when it comes to caring for students and their families?

-Is it inflexible with timetables when it comes to interviewing With him?

-Do you make sure that the students and their families understand what they are asked for?

-Do you care about your students and your personal circumstances?

-Do you coordinate with your peers, other agents (social services, Etc …) in order to adequately carry out the necessary activities for their students?

-Can you act when you detect a serious problem?

All these parameters could be periodically evaluated, not only by the students, but also by their families, peers and even other agents and, without a doubt, those who do well in these parameters, will also improve “the achievements of their students” … On the other hand, the evaluation should serve mainly to improve as teachers, to have feedback on those aspects to work and, in passing, to stimulate interest, to reward those who strive to do well. An evaluation system needs to be very careful in its elaboration to avoid injustices (filter the extremes, make sure that the evaluation is constructive, etc …) but a part of a teacher’s “evaluation” should be a function of answers to questions such as previous. As the Latin adage said, the objective is “suum cuique tribuere”, to give each one his own, or in other words, to treat unequally the unequal.

  • To achieve greater social recognition and make access to the teaching profession attractive: It is necessary that they be the best students and the best professionals, from various sectors, who become teachers. At the moment, the note of court of access to teaching is well below other professions. In some ways, being a teacher is not an attractive profession for the best and, unfortunately, it is more frequent to find references to aggressions to teachers in the news than to international prizes received by teachers. Again, it may be useful to look at experiences in neighboring countries: In the United Kingdom, at the beginning of this century, the teaching profession ranked 92th on the most popular career list. After a careful campaign at the national level where, at first, the appeal of working with children was highlighted, to later highlight the possibilities of training and the career plan, it was achieved in just 5 years that teaching was one of the professions More popular. Obviously, in order to be able to propose such an initiative it is necessary to have something to offer: Let us emphasize the previous point.
  • Professionalize the figure of the Director of the Center. Among the legislative innovations introduced by LOMCE, we have been able to verify how the figure of the director assumed new functions previously distributed in other organs. This means that if the figure of the director is important, in a scenario like the current one is still more since it has to be the driver, the architect of the change in each specific center. Nowadays becoming a director does not have a special attraction for teachers (the general opinion is usually that the possible remuneration improvement does not compensate the troubles of the post) but is also that it tends to equate to be a good teacher with being a good director when The skills required for both positions are very different. However, it seems logical that anyone who aspires to run a center has previously faced the challenge of running a classroom and properly know the difficulties and needs of the teacher. Both ideas are compatible as long as management provides sufficient support to the development of managerial talent. Again, if we take a look at the developed countries we can see how, for example, in Canada, a managerial qualification program was implemented to identify and develop the teachers of those future directors. These new directors, once elected, had a specific training program of two years adapted to the needs of their position. Focusing on what has been said before to develop career plans, here we face a progressive endowment of greater responsibilities with support throughout the process.
  • Establishment of a Global Training Plan that implies an immediate improvement of the training of teachers and directors: In the field of training, on many occasions, we tend to confuse number of hours with content of the same. For training to be effective it must be immediately applicable from minute zero and must be directed or proposed by someone who, with objective criteria, is able to indicate those aspects that must be worked or improved by the participant. On the other hand, to the extent that the teacher knows that he is going to be evaluated for his competencies, he himself should be able to recognize those sections that require greater and better skills to be able to perform their work effectively. Training can not be the same for all teachers and should not be confined to knowledge (we often see that teachers teach English or technology) when they may need to emphasize developing their communication skills or their empathy ability or To know how to coach their students. At the level of the directors, as mentioned above, the training should be focused on the development of their motivation skills, team management, effective presentation skills or learning to identify talent. Teachers and directors who had reached a certain level of excellence should be proposed as a further step in their professional career to integrate an elite body of training of trainers that would be able to translate best practices to as many teachers as possible . One of the primary objectives of establishing this training plan would be to be able to identify and learn from the best teachers. Similarly, these continuing education programs should be unambiguously oriented towards improving student outcomes by always measuring, as far as possible, the direct impact of each course.
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